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Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2011, Vol 11, Num, 3     (Pages: 451-461)

Occurrence and Dynamics of Hydrocarbon in Periwinkles Littorina littorea

Isaac A. Ololade 1 ,Labunmi Lajide 2 ,Nurudeen A. Oladoja 1 ,Victor O. Olumekun 3 ,Olalekan O. Adeyemid 4

1 Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
3 Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
4 Department of Environmental Sciences, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria
DOI : 10.4194/1303-2712-v11_3_16 Viewed : 4328 - Downloaded : 4647 The cumulative effects of small accidental spills in the marine environment can have significant impacts on marine wildlife. Aquatic fauna are often examined for evidence of hydrocarbon exposure, as it may pose direct threat to their health and consequently humans. The composition and spatial distribution of hydrocarbons especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in the tissue of periwinkles Littorina littorea from two carefully selected locations within the oil-polluted coastal area of Ondo State, Nigeria using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and mass spectrometry (GC/FID/MS). The tissues were sampled and analyzed to evaluate the spatial extent and persistence of pollution, as well as their potential for adverse effects. Complex series of compounds, many of which were considered biotransformed products were obtained. The PAHs ranged; not detectable (nd) – 56.23 μg/g dry weight (dw) and nd - 79.43 μg/g dw during the dry and wet seasons respectively. The total PAHs (ΣPAHs) during the wet season was almost 100% greater than ΣPAHs during the dry season; a factor attributed to run-off from contaminated land during the wet season. The levels of PAHs obtained were partly attributed to the lack of aryl hydrocarbon hydrogenase (AHH) system in L. littorea. Relative ratios of low molecular weights, LPAHs (<3-ring) compounds to those with high molecular weights, HPAHs (>4-rings) suggested a petroleum related origin for the PAHs detected in the organism. The PAH and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) are significantly correlated (P<0.05, r= 0.908). The levels of PAHs in the tissues were relatively low compared to world-wide locations reported to be chronically contaminated by oil. Keywords : Oil spill, hydrocarbons, gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; periwinkle