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Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2022, Vol 22, Num, 4     (Pages: TRJFAS20235)

Adaptive Immune System in Fish

Adef Othan Kordon 1 ,Lesya Pinchuk 1 ,Attila Karsi 1

1 Mississippi State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA DOI : 10.4194/TRJFAS20235 Viewed : 472 - Downloaded : 530 The immune system of all jawed vertebrates is composed of two major subsystems, the innate (non-specific) and adaptive (specific) immune system. The innate immune system is the first to respond to infectious agents; however, it does not provide long-lasting protection. The adaptive immune system is activated later and responds to pathogens with specificity and memory. The main components of the adaptive immune system, including T cell receptors (TCRs), major histocompatibility complex (MHC), immunoglobulins (Igs), and recombination-activating gene (RAG) arose in the first jawed fish (cartilaginous and teleost fish). This review explores and discusses components of the adaptive immune system in teleost fish and recent developments in comparative immunology. Similar to mammals, the adaptive immune system in teleost fish is divided into two components: cellular-mediated responses and humoral-mediated responses. T cells, the principal elements of cellular-mediated adaptive immune responses, differentiate into effector helper T (Th) cells or effector cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). The central elements involved in the differentiation of Th subsets in mammals, cytokines and master transcription factors, have also been identified in teleost fish. In addition, each subset of Th cells, defined with a particular cytokine to control the immune responses, has been described in teleost fish. Similar to mammals, CTLs contribute to cellular cytotoxicity in teleost fish. B cells are central players in humoral-mediated adaptive immunity by producing opsonizing, neutralizing and complement-binding antibodies and inducing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Three classes of antibodies named IgM, IgD, and IgT/Z have been characterized in teleost fish. The presence of an adaptive immune system and consequent immune memory in teleost fish allows vaccination, the most appropriate method for disease control in aquaculture. Immunological studies in fish provide a comprehensive assessment of the fish immune system, which is crucial for understanding the evolution of the mammalian immune system. Keywords : Adaptive immunity T cells B cells