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Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2001, Vol 1, Num, 1     (Pages: 7-15)

Development of Swimming and Feeding Functions in Larval Turbot, Psetta maxima, Reared in the Laboratory

Hiroshi Kohno 1 ,Masato Moteki 1 ,Kenzo Yoseda 2 ,Temel Şahin 2 ,Cennet Üstündağ 2

1 Laboratory of Ichthyology, Tokyo University of Fisheries, Konan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan
2 Central Fisheries Research Institute, P.O. Box 129, 61001 Trabzon, Turkey
Viewed : 4132 - Downloaded : 2536 Developmental sequences of swimming- and feeding-related structures were examined in laboratory-reared larvae of the turbot, Psetta maxima. The following five swimming and four feeding developmental stages were recognized. Swimming: 1) primitive swimming stage (from hatching to D-13) - no swimming-related characters developed other than pectoral fin supports; 2) caudal fin swimming stage (D-13 to D-17/20) – notochord flexion begin to develop accomplished, and caudal fin rays and fin supports begin to develop; 3) caudal fin + axial swimming stage (D-17/20 to D-25) - vertebrae with haemal and neural arches and spines developed; 4) well-balanced swimming stage (D-25 to D-30) - dorsal and anal finray complements completed; 5) completed stage (beyond D-30) - larvae considered to have acquired juvenile swimming ability. Feeding: 1) basic sucking stage (D-2 to D-9/13) - mouth opens and oral cavity elements (e.g. suspensorium, hyoid arch and opercular bones begin to develop; 2) functional sucking stage (D-9/13 to D-15/17) - further development and initial ossification of oral cavity elements; 3) sucking + biting stage (D-15/17 to D-30) - jaw and pharyngeal teeth increase in number, some degree of ossification in all oral cavity elements; 4) completed stage (beyond D-30) - larvae considered to have acquired juvenile feeding ability. Previously-recognized critical periods for larval turbot, observed at around D-10 to D- 20, corresponded to transformation phases from the primitive, basic modes to stable, more functional modes in both swimming and feeding functional development. Keywords : turbot, Psetta maxima, osteological development, functional development