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Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2014, Vol 14, Num, 3     (Pages: 795-806)

Replacing Fishmeal with Kikuyu Grass and Moringa Leaves: Effects on Growth, Protein Digestibility, Histological and Haematological Parameters in Clarias gariepinus

Hlophe Samkelisiwe N. 1 ,Moyo Ngonidzashe A.G. 1

1 University of Limpopo, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, School of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Aquaculture Research Unit (Turfloop Campus), Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa DOI : 10.4194/1303-2712-v14_3_22 Viewed : 4698 - Downloaded : 6355 The effects of replacing fishmeal (FM) with kikuyu meal (KM) and moringa meal (MM) in Clarias gariepinus diets were investigated. Nine diets (30% CP: 20 MJ kg-1) were formulated by replacing FM with KM and MM at 0% (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of C. gariepinus (30.5±2 g) for 60 days. Significantly higher (P<0.05) growth performance, feed and protein utilisation was observed in C. gariepinus fed KM diets compared to those fed MM. No histological alterations were found in liver of fish fed the control diet. Increased hepatocyte degradation was seen in fish fed higher levels of moringa in the diet. The enterocytes showed a significant increase in the number of goblet cells with increasing levels of MM. Villi height decreased significantly (P<0.05) when MM replaced >75 fishmeal. Higher levels of anti-nutrients in MM may be the cause of the adverse effects in growth, histology and haematological parameters of fish fed moringa based diets. The results of this study indicate that KM can replace up to 25% FM and that adding MM resulted in reduced performance. Higher profit index and lower incidence cost was observed KM diets than in MM diets. Keywords : Feed utilisation, blood biochemistry, intestine, liver